In 1669, a man arrested as the Man in the Iron Mask was imprisoned in various jails and fortresses throughout France and Italy. His true identity, however, has never been established due to the fact that he wore a black velvet mask at all times, secured to his face by metal straps. Various historians have debated as to his real identity. The 18th Century philosopher Voltaire claimed him to be the illegitimate brother of King Louis XIV, whereas Alexandre Dumas spoke of a prisoner forced to wear an iron mask to conceal his identity as Louis XIV’s identical twin. The prisoner died in 1703 during the reign of King Louis XIV, having been held in the custody of the same jailer for 34 years.